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Ethical Considerations Surrounding Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Ethical Considerations Surrounding Artificial Intelligence (AI)


  1. What are the ethical considerations surrounding the development and use of artificial intelligence (AI)?


1. Introduction

Artificial intelligence (AI) is the ability of a digital computer or computer-controlled robot to perform tasks commonly associated with intelligent beings. AI is an area of computer science that focuses on the creation of intelligent machines that work and react like humans. However, in the real world, AI technology can raise ethical concerns and sometimes when AI does something wrong, we tend to blame the AI itself but not the developers. There are different ethical frameworks that are contributing to the development of AI in a way that is moral and that serves the societal interests. AI with preference to a certain group of society only might cause harm and this could be disastrous. So, all these ethical considerations of AI are ensuring that the technology is not being misused. Ethical considerations in AI research are ensuring the technology is produced for the common good of humanity, the infrastructure of the technology is safe and able to serve the society, and also there is no misconduct in applying it. These include obtaining informed consent, protecting privacy and data confidentiality, avoiding harm, and protecting the well-being of society. All these key and indictable ethical considerations are guiding the researchers to carry out state-of-the-art research for a better future. Every stakeholder in the AI field, such as developers, AI technologists, and top leadership, should have a clear knowledge of ethical AI and apply these ethical principles during their work on creating AI for the betterment of society and technology advancement. This article surveys various ethical considerations of AI from different stakeholders’ perspectives, including technologists, policymakers, and the general public. It discusses how these ethical considerations could be influencing the development of AI, the values that are being entrenched in the guiding principles of governance, and the challenges and prospects of these ethical principles.

1.1 Definition of Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence is a broad area of research that encompasses a range of techniques such as rule-based systems, heuristic search, and neural networks. The focus of the AI definition can be put on either intelligence or agents. Intelligence is typically defined as the ability to measure abstract concepts, think, comprehend complex ideas, learn from experience, reason, and solve problems. On the other hand, an agent is something which perceives and acts in an environment. AI can therefore be classified as either the intelligence of an agent or the study of an agent and its environment. As you would expect, these definitions result in wildly different interpretations of what AI actually is and where it begins and ends. For example, the common television definition of AI is “Robots or computers that are so advanced that they are given the ability to think or make decisions for themselves.” This has led to the popularization of AI in the realms of robots and interactive humanoid computer machines, what this article will more accurately describe as robot-based AI. However, all AI in these terms requires some idea of what people mean by thinking and decisions for themselves. This has led to the cognitive impenetrability problem, otherwise known as ‘the sciences last frontier’ where technology is so advanced that we cannot understand the neural processes behind the AI’s thoughts and decisions. With such simulations of different aspects of human intelligence, philosophers and psychologists argue that this becomes more and more of a threat to identify different diagnoses and for scientists to grasp their own life’s work.

1.2 Importance of Ethical Considerations

In order to highlight the importance of ethical considerations in the context of AI, the text states that overlooking such considerations can lead to severe consequences for humanity. In particular, the article argues that ethical principles are required in different instances from the development to the actual application of AI. Besides this, the article further provides a classification of different nature of AI ethical issues and proposes a conceptual framework of AI ethics. It first distinguishes between human rights violation and unfair disadvantageous AI caused by AI and proposes that both the makers and users of AI should engage in continuous critical reflections on the question of value in society because the values embedded in AI depend on human choice. Also, it categorizes AI ethical issues into two types, namely direct ethical issues about AI itself and indirect ethical issues caused by AI development and deployment. The article then critically reviews the current thoughts on the general principles that should govern AI deployment and the ways in which these principles could be applied in practice. However, the text points out that the field of AI ethics is still very young and it is difficult to know exactly what the best practice will be and what sort of ethical infrastructure will be needed to enable sure practice. Therefore, the text calls for engaging technological contribution to the future of society in a way that is underpinned by a certain set of values which are embedded in the commitment to human flourishing. From identifying broad areas of ethical concerns and stakeholders’ key objectives to offering detailed methodologies and technical solutions, the text gives a comprehensive analysis on AI-related ethical issues. Although the provision of such knowledge could be a bit alarming for some given the prospect of challenges and changes ahead, the text still remains optimistic and highlights the importance of seeking to cultivate concurrent technological and moral processes. The text concludes by arguing that having a good ethical practice in AI is not just about the application of the right rule but to cultivate a sense of judgment and commitment for the welfare of society. Well, I believe that adding signposting sentences to actually see how the conclusion aligns with the objective of this module could be a suggestion. However, in general, I think it is useful to understand why ethical practice is important and how stakeholders regulator should interact with ethical guidelines.

1.3 Scope of the Work

The project will begin by defining the idea of artificial intelligence. This includes a detailed exploration of what makes a system or output truly ‘intelligent’ and how this definition applies to different types of AI. From there, the work will proceed by building an understanding of the importance of incorporating ethical considerations into AI development. It will be argued that AI which does not take account of certain ethical principles is unlikely to be socially responsible. To this end, the work will explore some of the main ethical frameworks that have been proposed in the sphere of AI, and look at how they might provide guidance for engineers and policy makers in the field. Having established these foundational ideas, the project will then move to examine a number of real ethical issues thrown up by the advance of AI. These will include, for example, privacy rights, employment law and the prospect of increasing inequality and alienation in society. In order to understand the depth of the ethical issue and its practical application to the development of AI, the work will also look at a well-known example of a particularly complex ethical problem: the development of autonomous vehicles.

2. Ethical Frameworks for AI Development

2.1 Utilitarianism

2.2 Deontological Ethics

2.3 Virtue Ethics

3. Privacy and Data Protection

3.1 Collection and Use of Personal Data

3.2 Consent and User Control

3.3 Data Security and Breach Prevention

4. Bias and Discrimination in AI Systems

4.1 Sources of Bias in AI

4.2 Implications of Bias and Discrimination

4.3 Mitigating Bias in AI Systems

5. Transparency and Explainability

5.1 Black Box Problem

5.2 Importance of Explainability in AI

5.3 Techniques for Improving Transparency

6. Accountability and Responsibility

6.1 Legal and Moral Responsibility

6.2 Challenges in Assigning Accountability

6.3 Ensuring Accountability in AI Systems

7. Impact on Employment and Workforce

7.1 Automation and Job Displacement

7.2 Reskilling and Job Creation

7.3 Social and Economic Implications

8. Autonomous Weapons and Military AI

8.1 Ethical Concerns in Autonomous Weapons

8.2 International Regulations and Treaties

8.3 Human Control and Decision-Making

9. Social and Ethical Impact on Society

9.1 AI in Healthcare and Medicine

9.2 AI in Criminal Justice System

9.3 AI and Social Manipulation

10. Governance and Regulation of AI

10.1 Government Policies and Regulations

10.2 Industry Standards and Self-Regulation

10.3 International Collaboration and Cooperation

11. Ethical Considerations in AI Research

11.1 Ethics Review and Approval

11.2 Informed Consent and Participant Rights

11.3 Publication and Openness in Research

12. Future Implications and Challenges

12.1 Ethical Considerations in AI Advancement

12.2 Human-AI Collaboration and Relationships

12.3 Ethical Decision-Making in AI Development

Ethical Considerations Surrounding Artificial Intelligence (AI)

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