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H.M. is a 67-year-old female, who recently retired from being a school teacher for the last 40 years.

H.M. is a 67-year-old female, who recently retired from being a school teacher for the last 40 years.

H.M. is a 67-year-old female, who recently retired from being a school teacher for the last 40 years.

H.M. is a 67-year-old female, who recently retired from being a school teacher for the last 40 years. Her husband died 2 years ago due to complications of a CVA. Past medical history includes hypertension controlled with Olmesartan 20 mg by mouth once a day. Family history is not contributory. Last annual visits with PCP with normal results. She lives by herself but her children live close to her and usually visit her two or three times a week. Her daughter started noticing that her mother is having problems focusing when talking to her. She is not keeping things at home as she used to, and often she is repeating and asking the same question several times. Yesterday, she had issues remembering her way back home from the grocery store.
Case Study 2 Questions:
Name the most common risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease.
Name and describe the similarities and differences between Alzheimer’s disease, Vascular Dementia, Dementia with Lewy bodies, and Frontotemporal Dementia.
Define and describe explicit and implicit memory.
Describe the diagnosis criteria developed for Alzheimer’s disease by the National Institute of Aging and the Alzheimer’s Association.
What would be the best pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapeutic approaches for H.M.?
500 words, 2 cited sources APA format

Common Risk Factors for Alzheimer’s Disease:

The most common risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease include age, genetics, family history, and certain lifestyle factors. Age is the primary risk factor, with the likelihood of developing Alzheimer’s increasing significantly after the age of 65. Genetics also play a crucial role, with specific genes such as the APOE ε4 allele increasing the risk of developing the disease. Family history is another risk factor, as individuals with close relatives who have had Alzheimer’s are at higher risk themselves. Additionally, lifestyle factors such as cardiovascular health, physical activity, diet, and social engagement have been linked to Alzheimer’s risk. Conditions like hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and smoking also contribute to the risk.

Comparison of Alzheimer’s Disease, Vascular Dementia, Dementia with Lewy Bodies, and Frontotemporal Dementia:

Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid plaques and tau protein tangles in the brain, leading to progressive cognitive decline, memory loss, and changes in behavior and personality.

Vascular dementia is caused by reduced blood flow to the brain, often due to strokes or small vessel disease. It typically results in cognitive impairment, including difficulties with reasoning, planning, and memory, and may coexist with Alzheimer’s disease.

Dementia with Lewy bodies is characterized by the presence of abnormal protein deposits called Lewy bodies in the brain. Symptoms include fluctuations in cognitive abilities, visual hallucinations, and motor symptoms similar to Parkinson’s disease.

Frontotemporal dementia primarily affects the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain, leading to changes in behavior, personality, and language. It often manifests as early-onset dementia, occurring before the age of 65, and can present with symptoms such as apathy, disinhibition, and language difficulties.

Explicit and Implicit Memory:

Explicit memory, also known as declarative memory, refers to the conscious recollection of past events, facts, and experiences. It involves the ability to intentionally recall information, such as recalling the details of a recent conversation or remembering historical facts.

Implicit memory, on the other hand, is the unconscious memory of skills, habits, and procedures, without conscious awareness. It includes skills such as riding a bike or tying shoelaces, which are acquired through repetition and practice.

Diagnosis Criteria for Alzheimer’s Disease:

The National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer’s Association developed diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer’s disease, which include:

  1. Evidence of cognitive decline from previous levels of functioning.
  2. Impairment in one or more cognitive domains, such as memory, language, executive function, or visuospatial abilities.
  3. Symptoms that interfere with daily functioning and independence.
  4. Exclusion of other potential causes of dementia through comprehensive medical evaluation and testing.

Therapeutic Approaches for H.M.:

H.M., a famous patient who underwent bilateral medial temporal lobectomy to treat severe epilepsy, suffered from profound amnesia following the surgery. Pharmacological approaches for H.M. may include medications to manage symptoms associated with amnesia, such as cholinesterase inhibitors or memantine. Non-pharmacological approaches may involve cognitive rehabilitation techniques, including memory training, compensatory strategies, and environmental modifications to support memory function. Additionally, supportive interventions such as psychoeducation and counseling may help H.M. and his caregivers cope with the challenges of living with amnesia.


H.M. is a 67-year-old female, who recently retired from being a school teacher for the last 40 years.

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