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PHIF PX3200 ETHICAL THEORY MATRIX TEMPLATE

PHIF PX3200 ETHICAL THEORY MATRIX TEMPLATE

ETHICAL THEORY MATRIX TEMPLATE

Identify the professional code of ethics for your professional specialty or a specialty that you are interested in, describe the decision criteria, and analyze each theory using examples and the Ethical Theory Matrix Template. (ATTACHED)

Ethics is a branch of philosophy devoted to the study of morality. Ethics has a long history of theories about determining right from wrong and identifying the principles of living a good life. For this assessment, you will be asked to apply foundational principles in ethics, such as autonomy and justice, in a relevant health care setting.

Drawing from the material covered in the resources as well as your own research, complete this assessment using the Ethical Theory Matrix Template [DOC].

For each theory, first describe the decision criteria. The decision criteria are the instructions the theory gives for how to reach the morally correct choice in a situation that requires action.
Then, provide your own example of how someone might act using the decision criteria of the theory.
Finally, briefly describe the strengths and weaknesses of each theory using the last two columns of the Ethical Theory Matrix Template.
The suggested resources for this assessment could help you get a start on completing the matrix, but do not hesitate to use any outside resources that you can find online, the Capella library, or elsewhere.

This matrix is a tool you will use throughout the rest of the course. Submit your completed matrix as an attachment to this assessment.

Refer to the Matrix of Ethical Theories Scoring Guide for more information on how this assessment will be graded.

Ethical Theory Matrix

 

Theory Decision Criteria Your Own Example Strengths Weaknesses
Utilitarianism

 

 

 

 

       
Kantian Ethics

 

 

 

 

       
Ross’s Ethics

 

 

 

 

       
Natural Law Ethics

 

 

 

       

ETHICAL THEORY MATRIX TEMPLATE

 

Matrix of Ethical Theories Scoring Guide

CRITERIA NON-PERFORMANCE BASIC PROFICIENT DISTINGUISHED
Articulate the time-tested theories of ethics. Does not articulate the time-tested theories of ethics. Articulates the time-tested theories of ethics, but in an unclear, incomplete, or inaccurate manner. Articulates the time-tested theories of ethics. Articulates the time-tested theories of ethics, and describes how to apply them to contemporary situations.
Identify the decision criteria of the time-tested theories of ethics. Does not identify the decision criteria of the time-tested theories of ethics. Identifies the decision criteria of the time-tested theories of ethics, but in an unclear, incomplete, or inaccurate manner. Identifies the decision criteria of the time-tested theories of ethics. Identifies the decision criteria of the time-tested theories of ethics, and describes real-world situations where each would be beneficial or a hindrance.
Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the time-tested theories of ethics. Does not describe the strengths and weaknesses of the time-tested theories of ethics. Describes the strengths and weaknesses of the time-tested theories of ethics, but in an unclear, incomplete, or inaccurate manner. Describes the strengths and weaknesses of the time-tested theories of ethics. Describes the strengths and weaknesses of the time-tested theories of ethics, and evaluates the currency and sufficiency of the evidence supporting those theories.

 

 

Resources:

·         Case Study Exercise

In this media piece, Missy requests a pregnancy test from her family’s pharmacist and asks the pharmacist to keep this request from her parents. Suppose you are the pharmacist in question. How would you respond?

Do not answer simply from an intuitive sense of what seems right to you. As you think through this scenario, consider the moral theories that you have read about and researched related to this assessment.

Consider questions, such as:

  • What moral theories are most relevant to this scenario?
    • Which would be most relevant to your current or desired career path?
  • How can moral theories help to guide your decision making processes?
    • How do they help to ensure you are making ethical decisions?
  • How does this scenario relate to the ideas of autonomy and confidentiality within the context of the overall field of health care?

 

As the local pharmacist, you have known the Smith family for years and consider them friends as well as customers and clients. Missy Smith has always been a favorite of yours and you have watched her grow into a very pretty thirteen year old. One day when no other customers are present, Missy asks you for a kit to test for pregnancy and pleads with you not to tell her family that she is sexually active.

 

PHIFPX3200 Capella University Matrix of Ethical Theories Analysis Essay

Resources: Moral theories and principles of health care ethics.

  • When making moral decisions and settling disagreements, it is easier to use moral principles than moral theories. The principles cannot be applied automatically. Using them requires judgment and careful consideration of the concrete situation at hand. Because they can make moral decisions more objective and rational, they help us steer clear of making moral choices based solely on individual feelings and a narrow, personal point of view. In other words, they allow us to make choices based on factors everyone considers important. You will be applying these principles during this course.

Principles of Health Care Ethics

  • Ethical Terms and Principles.
    • Use the flashcards feature to review and test your knowledge of each concept.
  • Munson, R. (2014). Intervention and reflection: Basic issues in bioethics(concise ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth. Available in the courseroom via the VitalSource Bookshelf link.
    • Part VI, “Foundations of Bioethics: Ethical Theories, Moral Principles, and Medical Decisions,” pages 467–523.

Moral and Ethical Theories

  • Anscombe, E. (n.d.) Kantian ethics. Retrieved from http://www.csus.edu/indiv/g/gaskilld/ethics/kantian%20ethics.htm
    • This resource provides an overview of Kantian Ethics that may help you to complete the Ethical Theory Matrix Template for your assessment.
  • Duignan, B., & West, H. R. (2017). Encyclopedia Britannica: Utilitarianism. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/utilitarianism-philosophy
    • This resource provides an overview of Utilitarianism that may help you to complete the Ethical Theory Matrix Template for your assessment.
  • Garret, J. (2004). A simple and usable (although incomplete) ethical theory based on the ethics of W. D. Ross. Retrieved from http://people.wku.edu/jan.garrett/ethics/rossethc.htm
    • This resource may help you to complete the Ethical Theory Matrix Template for your assessment.
  • Reason and Meaning. (2017). Summary of natural law ethics. Retrieved from https://reasonandmeaning.com/2017/11/13/summary-of-natural-law-ethics/
    • This resource provides an overview of Natural Law Ethics that may help you to complete the Ethical Theory Matrix Template for your assessment.

Ethical Terms and Principles

 

Actual Duty
In Ross’s ethics, what one morally required to do after everything relevant to the particular context of action is taken into consideration.

Agent
A moral agent has the ability to distinguish right from wrong and is responsible for her moral choices.

Autonomy
Respect for decision-making capabilities of people.

Cardinal Virtues
Four virtues – wisdom, courage, temperance and justice – that were emphasized by Plato as necessary for the development of moral character. According to the philosophy of Virtue Ethics, development of moral character leads to moral behavior.

Categorical Imperative
In Kantian moral theory, the unconditional moral law for all rational agents and source of all particular moral duties.

Consequences
The morally relevant results or outcomes of actions.

Duty
Obligation or responsibility.

Eudaimonia
A term from the Greek for ‘good spirit.’ Related to Virtue Ethics in that a good person will live an objectively good, virtuous life.

Fidelity
Loyalty and faithfulness to others. One of Ross’s prima facie duties.

Kantian Moral Theory
Kantian theory is centered around respect for autonomy, which is grounded in our nature as rational beings.

Morality
A code of conduct governing how we should make choices when our actions seriously affect others or ourselves.

Natural Law Theory
The position that rational reflection on nature, particularly human nature, will yield principles of good and bad that can guide human action toward human fulfillment or flourishing.

Prima Facie Duty
One’s duty ‘at first sight.’ A prima facie duty is ‘one that dictates what I should do when other relevant factors to a situation’ haven’t yet been fully factored. A prima facie duty can be overruled by one’s actual duty, once all relevant features of the situation have been considered.

Principle of Double Effect
From natural law ethics, the principle allowing foreseeable bad effects as long as these were not intended and are a necessary by-product of achieving the good effect.

Principle of Utility
The fundamental moral principle governing actions in utilitarianism. It holds that actions are right as the tend to produce happiness, wrong as they tend to produce unhappiness.

Ross’s Ethics
The pluralist moral philosophy of 20th century philosopher W.D. Ross. It lays out a system of prima facie duties that can in some situations come into conflict with one another; however, one’s actual duty in nearly all situations can be discerned with careful reflection.

Universalizability
A principle of Kantian moral theory. One should act only on ‘maxims,’ or personal policies, that one could also will to be universal laws (i.e., that are unverbalizable). That is, one should act only in ways that everyone could, at least in principle, act.

Utilitarianism
A moral theory holding that only the consequences of actions are morally relevant (not intentions or motivations), and that the goal of morality is to act so as to create ‘the greatest good for the greatest number.’

Virtue Ethics
A philosophy that states that human beings can be inherently virtuous as a result of their upbringing, education, observation of others, personal effort, and experience. An inherently virtuous person is disposed to do the right thing and does not need to consult rules or principles to guide their actions.

References

Fieser, J. (n.d.). Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Ethics. Retrieved from https://www.iep.utm.edu/ethics/#SH2a.

Fremgen, B. F. (2006) Medical Law and Ethics, 2nd Ed. Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Garrett, T.M., Baillie, H.W. & Garrett, R.M. (2001) Health Care Ethics: Principles and Problems, 4th Ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle, NJ.

Haskar, V. (n.d.). Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Moral agents. Retrieved from https://www.rep.routledge.com/articles/thematic/moral-agents/v-1.

Munson, Ronald (2014) Intervention and Reflection, Concise Ed. Wadsworth, Boston, MA.

Taylor, C.C.E. (n.d.). Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Eudaimonia. Retrieved from https://www.rep.routledge.com/articles/thematic/eudaimonia/v-1.

 

 

Resources: Autonomy, Truth- Telling, and Confidentiality.

 

  • The following chapter explores issues with autonomy, truth-telling, and confidentiality.
    • Munson, R. (2014). Intervention and reflection: Basic issues in bioethics(concise ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth. Available in the courseroom via the VitalSource Bookshelf link.
      • Chapter 1, “Physicians, Patients, and Others: Autonomy, Truth Telling, and Confidentiality,” pages 3–58.

 

 

PHIFPX3200 Capella University Matrix of Ethical Theories Analysis Essay

 

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