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The Cold War and the Prevention of Communist Spread

The Cold War and the Prevention of Communist Spread


  • Anti-Communist Freedom Fighters
  • Vietnam (conflict) War
  • Détente’
  • Camp David Accords
  • Strategic Defense Initiative (nicknamed “Star Wars”)

Any three and discuss the following

  1. Justify your decisions by outlining how they helped prevent the spread of communism worldwide.
  2. Make a decision based on your choices and then explain whether or not the US should have been worried about communist plots against the world during the Cold War (1945–1991).



1. Anti-Communist Freedom Fighters

The term “freedom fighters” is used to collectively describe the groups, movements, and people who fought against the spread of communism and the expansion of Soviet power. Across the world, many saw or believed they saw a growing trend of communist influence in global politics, particularly after the Soviet Union achieved the atomic bomb in 1949. Indeed, the common feeling, particularly in the United States, was that the world had been divided into two broad camps: the communist, or Iron Curtain countries, and the Free World. The US moved to support the efforts of anti-Communist freedom fighters due to the policy of containment, which involved blocking the spread of communism through both political pressure and direct intervention. Gratuitous warfare, a primary Leninist doctrine that stresses the necessity of conflict as the route to systemic change, was part of the policy of containment. Through the use of irregular military tactics – such as ambushes, sabotage, raids, and elements of political warfare – small groups of pro-American guerrilla fighters aimed to disrupt the formation and consolidation of communist governments in various countries. Over its duration, the Cold War provided a stimulus to the development of more focused and sophisticated training programmes. The United States, especially, trained anti-communist freedom fighters – whether they were regular military forces or guerrilla groups – by using advanced technology that would be either too dangerous or too costly to use in large-scale exercises at home. Such advancing training programmes could also be used to equip foreign forces with the necessary tactical knowledge and experience to meet the changing requirements imposed on them by military doctrine. Overall, these advanced measures showed that the United States was committed to developing strategies which could directly and damagingly disrupt the stability and safety of the communist movements outside of its borders. Disruption of communist movements required the successful interplay of strategy, the right intelligence, the element of surprise, and the ability to marshal and support effective anti-communist guerrilla actions. The Cuban Revolution in 1959 and Fidel Castro’s subsequent alliance with the Soviet Union led to the United States isolating Cuba politically and trying to undermine Castro’s regime by supporting anti-communist freedom fighters through guerrilla warfare in the ill-fated ‘Bay of Pigs’ invasion. This reveals the global significance of the US policy of backing such fighters and the lengths that it was willing to reach in order to prevent the spread of communism around the world.

1.1. Guerrilla warfare tactics

It is a collection of books that were first published in the early 80s, but I think it contains valuable commentaries. This clearly explains to the readers what guerrilla warfare is in the first place and subsequently links it to the support of the US in the use of these tactics for anti-communist movements. Also, it is highly valuable since most of the time, the Americans always neglect the specific tactics and actions of the freedom fighters but just provide support. All these details of specific tactics serve as a strong line of reasoning to show how much suppression these freedom fighters have been facing from the communists and thus, the United States is justified in the support provided. The second key idea in this essay is the detailed explanation and narration of the training and support from the United States to these guerrilla forces. This part starts with a simple statement that the US not only supports anti-communist freedom fighters but also trains and leads them to ensure the effect can be achieved quickly.

Our trip to Cameroon is underway again. This time, the Cameroonian people have rich and diverse landscapes and stories. Visiting Fountains Hall, we got up early that day. Because we decided to go to the small town of Harrogate first, and then visit Hornby Castle in Forrest along the way. Ruling the capital city Santa Fe as well as a marvelous “high road” trip. We went to our summer camp after, which locates in the middle of New Mexico nowhere, Zuni Mountains. The small little town called Ramah, if you are tired of museums and literature in Torrevieja, at most, it can only immerse you in your senses. In May, Torrevieja’s temperature dropped to 18 degrees of gray. The damp walls symbolize the incense that has never been interrupted in the long years; the mottled light and shadow and the happy and innocent pigeons convey joy in the meeting square. The majestic red azaleas on the church seem to carry the tragic charm of the deceased poet.

Perhaps this is exactly what this book lets us recognize something that may have existed for a long time but we are completely unaware of. Or according to the explanation of the bookstore, this is a book. Remember, the coffee in the cafe at the end of the world should be enjoyed as soon as possible and enthusiastically. Because the taste of coffee is not as good as freshly brewed coffee due to its acidity. Come on! We are all friends in the republic. Choosing the corner of the bread department, we introduce each other’s amazing discoveries around the exhibition and perform. When Mr. Xie first met the Arab curator and his garden, he was overjoyed. “In my opinion, all the most perfect things in a place are always hidden behind ordinary things. At the end of the stone steps along the path in the Arab curator’s garden, there is still that hybrid tea rose. You see, Mr. Su, tea roses always grow in unexpected places, which is the most touching.”

In the beginning of the section “1.1. Guerrilla warfare tactics,” it is explained by quoting Mao Zedong, a Chinese communist revolutionary and the founding father of the People’s Republic of China. Mao’s quotation on guerrilla warfare summarizes the strategy of this type of warfare. The main idea of guerrilla warfare is to make the entire country a base for military operations and to constantly harass the enemy to restrict its movement within powered areas and give freedom of movement to the guerrilla forces. He continued to provide methods on guerrilla warfare such as sabotage, terrorism, and subterranean activities. This quotation clearly summarizes the first key idea of guerrilla warfare in the essay. However, more importantly, it provides the reader with a thoughtful understanding of the tactics and the real intentions of the United States in the support of anti-communist movements through such tactics. By providing both the methods and the philosophy of guerrilla warfare, the readers are able to link it back to America’s approval of such tactics against communism. This critical linkage helps the readers to further understand the rationale behind the support.

1.2. Training and support from the US

In the early years of the Cold War, little help from the US in the form of actual troops or weapons could be provided to those fighting communist insurrection in regions such as Greece. Instead, substantial amounts of money were shifted to the CIA for the purpose of training special operational forces. At the request of the Greek government, Truman dispatched aid to support the Greek army in its fight against the two main guerrilla groups of the left and their political wing, which was the well-established communist party. In the beginning, this move was quite controversial because the US was seen to be involving themselves in European matters, but the unfolding of the Cold War and the paranoia and fear that it brought allowed Truman to persuade Congress that such actions were necessary to prevent the spread of communism. At the time, a policy known as containment was in place. Its primary aim was to stop the spread of communism further than it had already spread, but it had to be achieved by a strategy of stopping communism in the areas that it already existed. However, to take a more offensive approach and to ensure the practical application of the containment policy, a further policy of liberation emerged and this sought to help people not already under communist control to remain free. This policy therefore drove the action of providing support to anti-communist fighters such as those in Greece and it became the focus of the subsequent policy of NSC 68. This policy allowed the US to vastly expand its military and to go support more indirect actions, such as supporting the guerrilla fighters, and Herman defines the significance of the support of the American government as such actions to the Greek communists lead the Soviet dictator Stalin to take very drastic steps. He says that “Stalin, wanting to avoid wartime tensions whilst the so-called Distant War was still in play, but also desperate to preserve some element of security in the future for the Soviet Union, provided ample arms and advisers to the left-wing Greek forces and declared the right-wing government a feeble puppet of the Americans.” This recommendation towards increasing Soviet arms and support gave Truman the justification and encouragement he needed to expand such operations further and use the CIA training model in other countries and regions.

1.3. Disruption of communist movements

To make a judgment on the impact of the Cold War in the US foreign policy and domestic life, the disruption of communist activities and plots must be seriously considered. The range and scope of the activities of various communist movements in the US before the Cold War differ in the aims, leadership, and membership; but for all, achieving the ‘American Dream’ would be impossible through the policies pursued by a capitalist government in a world divided by the Cold War. Immediately after the Second World War, there was a big push for social change and political reform in a country that was seeing widespread growth in its economy and tension between the traditional rural and liberal urban societies. This relatively liberal atmosphere, combined with sympathy for the USSR as a result of the wartime alliance, created a climate in which communist parties were able to expand and challenge the US government. In response to the Red Scare, begun by the shock of the communists’ victory in the Chinese Civil War and propagated by the USSR’s development of the atomic bomb, President Truman initiated what is called a policy of containment against the USSR – a policy that would lead to direct and violent confrontation against the spread of communism. The first legislative measures to disrupt communist activities were the Alien Registration Act (The Smith Act) of 1940 and the McCarran Internal Security Act of 1950. The Smith Act, for the first time in US history, made it a punishable offense to advocate the violent overthrow of the government or to conspire with anyone else to do so. Also, the act required communists and members of ‘communist-infiltrated’ organizations to register with the US Attorney General and to produce their membership lists. Such requirements constrained the role of communist cells, as secrecy – central to successful covert activities – was made impossible. As a result, the communist movement began to decline in strength and popularity after 1953, weakening the possibility of a successful revolution instigated from within.

2. The Vietnam War

2.1. Containment policy in action

2.2. Proxy war against communism

2.3. Preventing communist takeover in Southeast Asia

3. Détente’

3.1. Easing of tensions between superpowers

3.2. Diplomatic negotiations and agreements

3.3. Peaceful coexistence with communism


4.1. Limiting nuclear arms race

4.2. Promoting stability and reducing tensions

4.3. Preventing escalation and potential conflict

5. Camp David Accords

5.1. Peace treaty between Israel and Egypt

5.2. Strengthening US influence in the Middle East

5.3. Containing Soviet influence in the region

6. Strategic Defense Initiative (nicknamed “Star Wars”)

6.1. Technological defense against nuclear threats

6.2. Deterrence of communist aggression

6.3. Challenging Soviet military capabilities

7. Justification of Decisions

7.1. Role in preventing communist expansion

7.2. Safeguarding democratic values and freedom

7.3. Maintaining global balance of power

8. Evaluation of US Concerns

8.1. Analysis of communist plots during the Cold War

8.2. Assessment of potential threats to US security

8.3. Relevance of worries in historical context

The Cold War and the Prevention of Communist Spread

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