Your Perfect Assignment is Just a Click Away
We Write Custom Academic Papers

100% Original, Plagiarism Free, Customized to your instructions!


The Pacemaker of the Heart-Sinoatrial and Atrioventricular Nodes

The Pacemaker of the Heart-Sinoatrial and Atrioventricular Nodes



The roles of the pacemaker of the heart are:

– Creates the action potential for the impulses for the contraction of the heart

– It initiates the beating of the heart.

– The cells of the SA node have an ability of self-excitation and thus the reason that beating the heart is a natural procedure (Hennis et al. 2021).

– It is situated below the epicardium and attached to the wall of the right atrium

There is a short pause in the opening when the electrical impulses pass through the AV node, it is the time when both the ventricles and atria depolarize. This delay is required as it allows ventricles to be filled with blood at full capacity before the contraction takes place.

  1. Action potential is a simulation of electrical impulses that is developed by a sequence of ions across the specialized pathways in the sarcolemma membrane of the cardiomyocytes which causes the cardiac muscles to contract. The proper transmission of electronic signals throughout the conduction channel is required for a well-organized cyclic heart contraction.  At the top right corner of the atrium, the Sino-atrial node (SAN) is situated and the atrioventricular node (AVN) is situated at the bottom left corner of the ventricle. The SAN is responsible for generating the action potential. The SAN can excite them and generate maximum action potential which is around 70 to 75 per minute, therefore the reason SAN is called the natural pacemaker of the heart (Wing and Schiffman 2021). The impulse travels from Bachmann’s bundle to the left atrium (LA) and then travels through the internodal pathway towards to atrioventricular node. Therefore, this is how the action potential causes the ventricle to contract.2.

The beating of the cardiac muscle cells which use electrical signals is caused by the pacemaker of the heart known as the sinoatrial node (SAN) located at the walls of the right atrium. The electrical impulses begin spontaneously from the SAN which leads to the contraction of the right atria. The impulse to the left atria via Bachmann’s bundle leads it also to contract. Then using the internodal pathway the impulse finally reaches the atrioventricular node. Here the impulse is slowed down or rather paused for a split of 0.1 seconds for the blood to be filled in the ventricle before being transmitted to the ventricle (Grewal et al. 2018). As the SAN sends electrical impulses rapidly and simultaneously is the prime reason for completing the cardiac cycle. If the electrical impulse would not be generated it would not cause the heart to beat and the further processes would also be stopped. Therefore, this is how the pacemaker regulates the cardiac cycle and as well as ensures that correct contraction of the heart is taking place by regulating the action potential gradient.


Grewal, A., Bhatia, N., Ramachandran, G., Yadav, M., Kantor, S., Chakravarty, C., Mehta, Y., Arora, D., Kapoor, P.M., Sadera, G. and Gwinnutt, J., 2018. Section 2: CARDioVASCULAR SYSteM. Monitoring in Anesthesia and Critical Care, p.27.

Hennis, K., Biel, M., Wahl-Schott, C. and Fenske, S., 2021. Beyond pacemaking: HCN channels in sinoatrial node function. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology.

Lazzerini, P.E., Acampa, M., Cupelli, M., Gamberucci, A., Srivastava, U., Nanni, C., Bertolozzi, I., Vanni, F., Frosali, A., Cantore, A. and Cartocci, A., 2021. Unravelling Atrioventricular Block Risk in Inflammatory Diseases: Systemic Inflammation Acutely Delays Atrioventricular Conduction via a Cytokine‐Mediated Inhibition of Connexin43 Expression. Journal of the American Heart Association, 10(21), p.e022095.

Wing, E.J. and Schiffman, F.J. eds., 2021. Cecil Essentials of Medicine E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.

The Pacemaker of the Heart-Sinoatrial and Atrioventricular Nodes


We’ll write everything from scratch



"Place your order now for a similar assignment and have exceptional work written by our team of experts, guaranteeing you "A" results."

Order Solution Now

Our Service Charter

1. Professional & Expert Writers: ESSAY PILLARS only hires the best. Our writers are specially selected and recruited, after which they undergo further training to perfect their skills for specialization purposes. Moreover, our writers are holders of masters and Ph.D. degrees. They have impressive academic records, besides being native English speakers.

2. Top Quality Papers: Our customers are always guaranteed of papers that exceed their expectations. All our writers have +5 years of experience. This implies that all papers are written by individuals who are experts in their fields. In addition, the quality team reviews all the papers before sending them to the customers.

3. Plagiarism-Free Papers: All papers provided by ESSAY PILLARS are written from scratch. Appropriate referencing and citation of key information are followed. Plagiarism checkers are used by the Quality assurance team and our editors just to double-check that there are no instances of plagiarism.

4. Timely Delivery: Time wasted is equivalent to a failed dedication and commitment. ESSAY PILLARS is known for timely delivery of any pending customer orders. Customers are well informed of the progress of their papers to ensure they keep track of what the writer is providing before the final draft is sent for grading.

5. Affordable Prices: Our prices are fairly structured to fit in all groups. Any customer willing to place their assignments with us can do so at very affordable prices. In addition, our customers enjoy regular discounts and bonuses.

6. 24/7 Customer Support: At  ESSAY PILLARS, we have put in place a team of experts who answer to all customer inquiries promptly. The best part is the ever-availability of the team. Customers can make inquiries anytime.