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Understanding Anaphylaxis: Genetic Predisposition Physiological Response and Cellular Involvement

Understanding Anaphylaxis: Genetic Predisposition Physiological Response and Cellular Involvement


Alterations in Cellular Processes > Use this information to answer the questions on the Rubric

C.M. is a 22-year-old male patient who presents to the clinic for allergy immunotherapy “allergy shots”.

He was given the the IM medication and waited 30 minutes to leave the center.  As the patient is leaving, he begins to complain of having difficulty swallowing, nausea, and feeling weak.

His vitals are 100/76, HR 120, Resp 24, O2 sat 95%.

The patient is now sitting in a tripod position on the table.

Using this Case Study, post an explanation of the disease presented. In addition, include the following information:

  1. Role of Genetics
  2. Why the patient presented with the symptoms to the ED
  3. What was the physiology response and why did the response occur?
  4. Which cell are involved in this process (Allergic reaction)
  5. How other characteristics would change your response.



Based on the symptoms described in the case study, it appears that the patient is experiencing anaphylaxis, which is a severe and potentially life-threatening allergic reaction. Anaphylaxis occurs when the immune system overreacts to a substance (allergen) that the body perceives as harmful, triggering a cascade of physiological responses.


  1. Role of Genetics:

Genetics can play a role in an individual’s predisposition to allergies and anaphylaxis. Some people may have a genetic predisposition to develop allergies, making them more susceptible to experiencing severe allergic reactions. Family history of allergies or asthma can increase the risk of an individual developing anaphylaxis.


  1. Why the patient presented with the symptoms to the ED:

The patient presented with symptoms of difficulty swallowing, nausea, feeling weak, and sitting in a tripod position, which are all indicative of a severe allergic reaction. These symptoms likely prompted the patient to seek medical attention at the emergency department (ED) for evaluation and treatment.


  1. Physiology Response and Why the Response Occurred:

During an allergic reaction, the immune system produces an excessive amount of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies in response to exposure to an allergen. These IgE antibodies bind to mast cells and basophils, triggering the release of inflammatory mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, and cytokines. These inflammatory mediators cause vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, bronchoconstriction, and smooth muscle contraction, leading to the symptoms observed in anaphylaxis, including difficulty swallowing, nausea, weakness, and respiratory distress.


  1. Cells Involved in the Process (Allergic Reaction):

The cells involved in the allergic reaction include mast cells and basophils. Mast cells are found in tissues throughout the body, particularly in the skin, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract, while basophils are circulating white blood cells. Both mast cells and basophils contain granules filled with inflammatory mediators that are released upon activation by IgE antibodies bound to their surface.


  1. How Other Characteristics Would Change Your Response:

Other characteristics that may change the response to anaphylaxis include the patient’s medical history, previous allergic reactions, concurrent medical conditions (such as asthma or cardiovascular disease), medications the patient may be taking, and the presence of any known allergens or triggers. Additionally, the severity of the symptoms and the patient’s response to initial treatment would also influence the management of anaphylaxis. Prompt recognition and treatment with epinephrine, antihistamines, and corticosteroids are essential in managing anaphylaxis and preventing further complications.

Understanding Anaphylaxis: Genetic Predisposition Physiological Response and Cellular Involvement


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